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Issues - Gender bias - Australia's June report

The Australian Gender Report for June 2004.

Send date: 30 June 2004 Compiled by Alan Barron, Convenor, The Institute of Men's Studies, Grovedale Victoria Australia. Website: www.mioms.com

Editorial: What the `women's movement' thinks of men and marriage…

Young women who enroll in `Women's Studies' at our universities are often taught vitriol from feminist pioneers such as Andrea Dworkin who teaches; "Heterosexual sex is rape."

Marilyn French: "All men are rapists."

They learn that "female heterosexuality is not a biological drive" but "a set of social practices about the oppression and exploitation of women." (Marilyn Frye).

They learn that lesbianism is the "means of liberation of all women from heterosexual tyranny." (Cheryl Clarke).

The nuclear family is "a cornerstone of women's oppression: it enforces women's dependence on men, it enforces heterosexuality and it imposes the prevailing masculine and feminine character structures on the next generation." (Alison Jagger).

Governments of various political hues spend millions of taxpayers dollars outlawing racial and religious intolerance, and yet at the same time pour tens of millions of dollars into `women's' departments at our universities who promote anti-male and anti- family tripe day in and day out. Why is it not a crime to vilify
men and marriage?

Looking after yourself: Had your Prostate checked lately?

The prostate goes through two periods of growth throughout a man's life. The first occurs during the beginning stages of puberty when it doubles in size. Its growth then stops until about age 25. At this time, it slowly begins to grow again and for some men can become problematic once they reach their early 50s. It is strongly recommended that all men over the age of 45 go for regular prostate exams and have a test called a Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)

PSA or prostate specific antigen is an enzyme produced by the prostate cells. PSA levels can be used as an indicator of prostate- related diseases, especially prostate cancer. As part of a general prostate health program, your doctor may recommend that you have a PSA blood test performed periodically. After age 50, most men begin to experience some degree of symptoms of prostate disorders, and the likelihood of symptoms arising may continue to increase over time.
There are 3 major diseases associated with the prostate. They are (1) benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), commonly referred to as an enlarged prostate; (2) prostatitis; and (3) prostate cancer.

It is very important that you understand the symptoms and warning signs of prostate disease and tell your doctor about any that you experience. Even in the absence of urinary symptoms, in order to promote a healthy prostate your doctor may perform periodic prostate exams and regularly monitor your prostate specific antigen (PSA) level.

Only your physician can diagnose an enlarged prostate, so have check- ups regularly.

Symptoms of Enlarged Prostate

Difficulty in starting to urinate
Difficulty in completely emptying your bladder
A weak urine stream that starts and stops
An increase in how often you feel the need to urinate
Urinating more frequently at night
A strong and sudden urge to urinate

Other urological conditions, including prostate cancer, may have similar symptoms. You should see your physician for regular examinations.

Who is at risk for prostate cancer?

All men are at risk. The most common risk factor is age. More than
70 percent of men diagnosed with prostate cancer each year are over
the age of 65. Dramatic differences in the incidence of prostate
cancer are also seen in different countries, and there is some
evidence that a diet higher in fat, especially animal fat, may
account for some of these differences. Genetic factors also appear
to play a role, particularly for families in whom the diagnosis is
made in men under 60 years of age. The risk of prostate cancer
rises with the number of close relatives who have the disease.

To sum up: all men over the age of 45 should have an annual PSA test. By this age nearly half the male population has some problems with their prostate. Over the age of 50, more frequent PSA testing is recommended. Generally speaking, the higher the PSA reading the greater the possibility of cancer being present. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly successful in combating prostate cancer. Two supplements that may be helpful for the maintenance of good
prostate health are; Trinovin (made by Novogen), and Proseren (made by Blackmores).

Stats of the month:

Family Court custody determinations when dissolution of marriage granted:

* Women win residential custody in 79% of cases.

* Joint custody is awarded in 14% of cases.

* Men win residential custody in 5% of cases.

Quote of the Month:

"The reason why husbands and wives do not understand each other is because they belong to different sexes," -Dorothy Dix.

On this day:

1520 The Aztec king Montezuma II killed by Conquistador Hernando Cortez.

1859 Frenchman Charles Blondin walks across Niagara Falls on tightrope.

1894 Tower Bridge in London is officially opened.

1938 The comic superhero, Superman makes his first appearance


1891 Sir Stanley Spencer, English artist.

1918 Susan Hayward, American actress, who won Oscar for I Want to

1966 Mike Tyson, World heavyweight champion boxer

News Items:

* How women have gained under the Howard Government

* Biased report presented on domestic violence

* 'Don't be a DAD!', urges Australian civil rights group
* Secret men's business: Size does matter

* Men - victims of increasing domestic violence

* Male chemistry does it for both sexes
* Military losing battle over soaring sexual harassment

News Items - Overseas:

Korea: Woman to pay husband for having baby by another man

England: Fathers 'have key role with children' after families split
USA: Women account for more than 40% of spousal homicides
USA: Wal-Mart vows to promote more women


How women have gained under the Howard Government

Since 1996, when the Howard Government came to power, more than 600,ooo jobs have been created for women. There are now more than 4 million women in the paid workforce. In education, there has been a 30% increase in the number of female students commencing undergraduate courses, a rise from 90,137 in 1993 to 117,156 in 2003. In terms of post-graduate course, in 1993 there were 28,214 female students, but by 2003 this had risen to 41,194 –a dramatic
increase of 45%. Australian women now have access to record levels of child-care. The Howard Government has doubled spending on child- care and has increased the number of Commonwealth funded childcare places by more than 210,000 since 1996, taking the total to 530,000 places under the Howard Government. (Family World News, Volume 11, No 5, May 2004.)

Comment: But what has the Howard Government done for men?

Biased report presented on domestic violence

Domestic violence was the single biggest contributor to death, illness and disability among young women, a report has found. Violence at the hands of an intimate partner was a far more serious problem for women aged 15-44 than risk factors such as high blood pressure, obesity, illicit drug use or smoking, the Health Costs of Violence report found.

At the report's launch in Melbourne today, VicHealth chief executive Rob Moodie said the results were shocking and showed that domestic violence was serious and prevalent and carried with it an enormous cost.
"One in five women report being subject to violence at one time in their adult lives," Dr Moodie said. "Intimate partner violence is very common and it has severe and persistent effects over many years on women's physical and mental health." Domestic violence was responsible for almost nine per cent of the disease burden among Victorian women aged 16-44, and for three per cent of the disease burden for adult women overall, the report finds.

Sixty per cent of the health problems identified in the report were mental disorders and a further 15 per cent were due to increased use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs. Chief amongst health problems suffered by the victims of domestic violence were depression, anxiety and suicide. Women aged 18 to 24 suffered the greatest incidence of domestic violence, with 4.9 per cent of women in that age group reporting being victims of physical or sexual
violence in the previous 12 months compared with 2.8 per cent of all adult women in that time.

Acting Victorian Premier John Thwaites said governments needed to work harder to help victims. "This report tells a shocking story, it tells the story that far too many women are being assaulted by their intimate partners. It's quite clear as a state, as a nation, we're going to have to act and act now to reduce this terrible violence against women."

Police Chief Commissioner Christine Nixon said her officers saw the enormous impact of domestic violence daily and the force was developing an education program for all police. "This particular work that's been launched today gives us some real evidence of the enormous impact of family violence in our communities," she told reporters. "The police understand when they go to a domestic violence incident that they are to take action, they are to apply
for intervention orders, but we are also looking at ways of keeping the woman who is the victim and the children in the house and having the perpetrator leave. This education program will be mandatory across Victoria Police and I think it will be very clear about what we want police to do."

Victorian Health Minister Bronwyn Pike said the report made it clear that domestic violence was a significant health issue. "The results of this study show the whole community needs to be involved in the effort to prevent domestic violence," she said. The findings released in the study were based on a review of existing research by a panel of experts. (By David Killick, AAP. As reported in Mamumit Exchange, 16/6/04).

Manumit comment:

Half of the truth is often ignored in reports such as this. There are two sides to a coin and two sides to family abuse and violence. Sadly, our governments are under the influence of anti-male (misandrist) feminists and are only conducting research for the advantage of women, while totally neglecting men and boys. Biased and sexist reports such as this one are what is termed advocacy 'research': they are not real research but are cobbled together to push a particular agenda, with the intent of favouring a particular group. In the case of this report, the aim is to advantage (favour) women in relationships with men, so that they have a ready-made and believable (socially/legally acceptable)
excuse and justification for terminating a relationship or family, for vilifying a man or (all) men, for keeping the children (of a relationship), as their custodian, and for ripping off innocent men by stealing their property and income (and their families, their homes and their lives).

'Don't be a DAD!', urges Australian civil rights group

Australian civil rights lobby group, Fathers-4-Equality, has urged all Australian men to refrain from having children, if possible. In response to growing concerns that legally enforced sexism continues to permeate through every aspect of the family law process, single fathers across Australia have lost faith in ongoing
political discussions and committee's that seem to be going nowhere.

Along with the federal government's wavering commitment to the principle of equality within the family court, and in light of the opposition leader's grand vision of replacing committed single father's with "male role models", many men have given up on any hope of truly being fathers again. Sonja Hastings, spokesperson for fathers-4-equality, stated that "if the treatment fathers received in the family court was to occur to women in any sector of society,
there would be justified outrage." But judges, lawyers, politicians and many women's groups are of the view that discrimination against men is acceptable in modern day society.

Ms Hastings urges all Australian men to think seriously about the consequences of having children in this country. She says that "no matter how decent, hardworking & caring you may be as a father, that in the event of separation, you will more than likely not get custody of your child, you will lose up to 80% of all your assets, you will have to pay up to 5 times the cost of raising a child, &
most importantly you could never see your child again, and the law will do nothing to help you."

However, if you still want to have children, Ms Hastings supplies the following suggestions:

i. Ensure you sign a fair and reasonable pre-nuptial agreement before marriage, and use this pre-nuptial agreement to document an understanding of equal and shared parenting (50/50 joint residence), if you were to have children, in the event of separation.

ii. And don't work too hard! If extra money is required by your family, let your wife work her fair share of the overtime. Remember that for every extra dollar you earn for your family, this is an extra reason that the family court will use to deny you fair access to your children.

Fathers-4-equality is lobbying the federal government to introduce a legislated presumption of 50/50 shared physical custody, rebuttable if child abuse can be substantiated, or if both parents agree to an alternate agreement. This they claim would put a stop to the modern day 'stolen generation', whereby children are robbed of their natural rights to have meaningful relationships with both their
parents. (Manumit Exchange, 8/6/04.)

Secret men's business: Size does matter

When it comes to fertility, size does matter, the larger the volume of the testicles, the greater chance of potency. In the Western world, male fertility rates are declining. One in 20 Australian men are infertile. A generation after the world's first test-tube baby in 1978, today, one Australian child in 50 is conceived in vitro, or about 5,000 per year. Andrologists uses an Orchidometer (or Prader's balls) to measure testicular volume. The first three blue shapes are used for the clinical evaluation of pre-pubescent boys. The three ellipsoids range from four milliliters through to 15, to the big daddy, 25 millilitres. The average volume of the testicle of a Western male is between 15 and 30 millilitres.

When adult, an average testicle can:

* produce 50 to 100 million sperm a day.

* produce 15 to 30 millilitres of ejaculate (1 to 2 tablespoons).
Ejaculate consists of only 5% semen, the rest is made up of 30%
fluid from the prostate, 60% fluid from the seminal vesicles, and 5%
natural lubricant. (Good Week End, 12 June 2004, pages 16-21.

Men's health

An Australian study has found men are notoriously lax about their health: one in four blokes has not seen a doctor in a decade says Professor Doreen Rosenthal, a board member of Anthology Australia, the government funded research centre dedicated to male reproductive health. And men's sexual health problems are incredibly common. About one million men suffer from erectile dysfunction; one in 20 is infertile, and in 200 suffers from testosterone deficiency; and 50 per cent of all men experience prostate problems. (The Herald Sun, 2 June, 2004, page 24.)

Woman appointed as Chief Justice of the Family Court

Federal Attorney-General Phillip Ruddock has appointed Diana Bryant QC as the new Chief Justice of the Family Court. She replaces Alistair Nicholson who recently retired after 16 years of service.

New female principal for boys school

Ms Maree Johnston will become the first female principal of a Catholic boys school early next year. Next year she will become the principal at St. Joseph's College, a Christian Brothers school in Melbourne's inner north. (The Age 19/6/04, page 6.)

Comment: This is a wrong decision. Boys need male role models. They will have enough experience of female bosses when they enter the work force in the years ahead. For a conservative religious body to make such a serious error in judgment, borders on the incredulous.

Men - victims of increasing domestic violence

About one-third of domestic violence victims treated in Australian hospitals are men, of all ages and from across the socio-economic spectrum, a new study has found.

Many victims also had been abused as children, said Dr Peter Stuart, the study's author and director of emergency medicine at Lyell McEwin Hospital in Adelaide. Of 1,326 people who presented at two Adelaide emergency departments over the 80 shifts studied, 8.7 per cent described themselves as victims of domestic violence. The majority of victims were women aged between 17 and 35 years who had been to hospital at least once before to be treated for injuries sustained in an assault and who were likely to have been abused as children.

"But ... domestic physical assault is not isolated to this group of patients but is also relatively common in men and all age, employment and cultural groups," Dr Stuart said. "This finding confirms the ubiquitous nature of domestic violence and highlights the difficulty in establishing a risk factor profile based on personal characteristics that would enable the selective screening of patients for domestic violence."

People with part time jobs or stay-at-home parents were more likely to be abused than those in full time employment or the unemployed, Dr Stuart reported in the latest issue of the medical journal Emergency Medicine Australasia. Almost 30 per cent of the domestic violence victims were men, Dr Stuart said. Elderly patients for the most part refused to participate in the study, and Dr Stuart
excluded those who had serious injuries, attended the emergency department between midnight and 8am, or whose partner refused to leave the room. "As many of these patients are at significantly greater risk for domestic physical assault, the study is likely to underestimate the prevalence for recent assault," he said." (By Kylie Walker, The Australian, 31 May 2004. Manumit Exchange,

Male chemistry does it for both sexes- Testosterone may help a low sex drive

Testosterone may lift flagging libidos for middle-aged women and men, but at what cost? The "hormone of desire", testosterone, is getting good reviews in recent studies on improving libidos for men and women.

In patch form for women, and gel form for men, studies just released show this naturally occurring hormone revved up women with low libidos after hysterectomies, and gave that extra sexual shot to men
who had low testosterone levels, called hypogonadism. The preliminary findings on the female patch were presented at a recent meeting of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Lead investigator Dr James Simon was cautiously optimistic, saying: "We hope we are one step closer to providing an
effective therapeutic option."

Previously, medical authorities had warned that testosterone was unproven for libido enhancement and might not be worth the risk, because it had not been tested for efficacy and safety in proper scientific trials. But findings from Simon's study of 562 surgically menopausal women found improvements in desire,
satisfaction with sex, orgasm, responsiveness and self-image. The women wore a thin, transparent testosterone patch on the abdomen, which released a low, controlled dose of natural testosterone. The side-effects were minimal and researchers are now investigating how it works with women who have undergone a natural menopause. This was a short-term study of 24 weeks, and impact on cholesterol levels, also a concern, was not measured.

For men, AndroGel - a testosterone gel that is rubbed onto the skin - proved safe and effective over more than three years of use, according to a study published in the May issue of the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. According to researchers, men in the study experienced "rapid and sustained" improvements in sexual function and mood, decreases in fat mass and increases in lean body mass, and increases in bone mineral density in the spine and hips. A male fountain of youth, it seems. The controversy over use of testosterone for men has been ongoing. Many doubt the need to define so-called male menopause, let alone to treat it, and have called the use of this hormone to reverse flagging libidos and flaccid erections akin to an uncontrolled experiment. Those with prostate cancer are ruled out because it feeds the cancer, and the
study authors recommended monitoring patients closely for prostate problems.

Six of the 163 men in the study developed prostate "disorders" during the AndroGel trial. The authors recommend those using the product have a check of their PSA levels - used to detect prostate cancer - and digital rectal examinations before starting therapy and periodically throughout treatment. Is testosterone the wonder drug for rejuvenating men and women? These trials seem to indicate it could be. But hormone therapy was once touted as the answer to all menopausal problems, and look where that led us. (By Carolyn Susman, The Age, 29 May 2004.)

Military losing battle over soaring sexual harassment claims

REPORTS of homosexual harassment in the Army and Navy have soared as
confidential documents reveal major failings in the ability of the Australian Defence Force to deal with sexual intimidation.

An internal report obtained by The Australian newspaper shows the total number of sexual harassment complaints inside the Defence Forces doubled last year to 122. And out of those 51 were complaints by men against other men. The previous year there were only 12 complaints of sexual harassment of males by other serving males. The report on unacceptable behaviour in the Australian Defence Force, obtained under Freedom of Information legislation, reveals an
alarming rise in male sexual assaults against females in the Navy, up to 27 in 2002-03. The Army reported 20 cases of sexual assault by males against females, while the Air Force force, which has the lowest level of sexual assault and harassment, reported four. The internal report seriously questions the response of Defence Department officials to victims' complaints, saying "there is still a significant number of sexual offence complaints where management
inaction or uncertainty has significantly drawn out the length of the case". It comments that many victims withdrew their complaint of sexual assault due to the stress of the legal process, and "their unwillingness to be subjected to further trauma". Of the 62 complaints of sexual assault in the three services, only seven ended up with formal action being taken. The ADF had 51,791 permanent members in June 2003. The Army had 25,289; the Navy 12,864, and the Air Force 13,638.

News of the rise in sexual assaults comes as the defence organisation is under fire for its mishandling of the prisoner abuse controversy, and is struggling to contain other social problems such as drug and alcohol abuse in the ranks. The issue of sexual assault in the Navy first erupted in the early 1990s after a series of assaults against female sailors aboard HMAS Swan. That controversy saw the Navy introduce new rules to try to prevent sexual harassment of crew members while at sea. Women are now allowed to serve on both Navy surface ships and submarines.

A spokeswoman said the Defence Department had encouraged the reporting of unacceptable behaviour and the increase in complaints might indicate a heightened level of awareness due to increased familiarity with new reporting mechanisms. Toll-free telephone advice lines are also available for service personnel subjected to unacceptable behaviour. The victims of most cases of sexual assault in the Army were subordinate in rank to the respondent, while in the Navy most sexual offences were committed by a person of equal rank.
Six cases of sexual assault were reported in the Air Force, and half of those were by someone of equal rank. In the previous year, 2001- 02, the Navy received reports of 18 servicemen being sexually harassed by males of a lower rank. The report shows 85 per cent of personnel involved in sexual harassment complaints were on duty when the incidents occurred. Most cases of indecent and sexual assault occurred off-duty. (The Australian, 8/6/04. page 1)

Former teacher charged

Karen Ellis, a former physical fitness teacher in her late 30's, has been charged over alleged sex offences with a year 10, 14 year old boy. Ms Ellis has been charged with seven counts of sexual assault with a person under the age of 16, and seven counts of committing an indecent act with a person under the age of 16. Ms Ellis has recently resigned from the education department. (Herald Sun
16/6/04. page 1.)


Korea: Woman to pay husband for having baby by another man

A South Korean court has ordered a woman to pay her husband 50 million won ($68,000) compensation for having a baby by another man. The 26-year-old woman told her husband in February 2002 that she was pregnant with his baby, but his suspicion later grew when relatives complained that "the baby didn't look like him at all".

When the husband confronted his wife with a DNA test that showed the babywas not his, she argued that the baby must have been switched at hospital. But when he moved to sue the hospital, she confessed to having another man's baby. The wife said she was sexually assaulted by the baby's real father, but the court rejected her argument for lack of evidence. (The New Zealand Herald, 1 June 2004. Manumit Exchange, 1/6/04.)

England: Fathers 'have key role with children' after families split

The importance of fathers in the emotional development of children is emphasised today in a study of separated parents in Bristol. Researchers say they found a direct relationship between children's behavioural problems and the amount of contact they had with their natural father. The effect was more pronounced in single-parent families, particularly where the mother was a teenager. In such cases, children were especially vulnerable emotionally if they had no contact with their father. The findings are published in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry amid protests by fathers about access to children after a family break-up. Prof Judy Dunn, from the Institute of Psychiatry at King's College London, studied 162 children whose parents had separated. Of those children, 18 per cent had no contact with their father and 16 per cent had contact less than once a month.

The children were interviewed, initially at the age of eight and a half, about their relationships with their mother, fathers and stepfathers. Mothers were asked to report on whether their children were aggressive and delinquent, or withdrawn, anxious or depressed. There were fewer problems relating to aggression with a child and its mother and non-resident father if there was good contact between
the father and the child and their relationship was good. (By Sarah Womack, Social Affairs Correspondent Daily Telegraph (UK) 26 May 2004. Manumit Exchange, 7/604.)

England: Women's infidelity is all in the genes

Unfaithful women have a new excuse - their misbehaviour might be down to their genes. A scientific study has shown that a woman's tendency to be unfaithful could be linked to particular genes inherited from her parents. The study suggests that about a quarter of British women carry the infidelity trait and that it sharply increases the chances that they will sleep with someone else while
in an apparently monogamous relationship with a man.

While the genetic element is far from exclusively responsible for infidelity - the state of a relationship and cultural factors are key elements - it sharply raises the chances that a woman will sleep with someone while she is in an apparently monogamous relationship with a regular partner. The gene findings have emerged from comparing a study of 5,000 female twins with a survey of 5,000 unrelated women. The work, carried out by researchers at Guy's and St Thomas' hospital, London, and part-funded by the Medical Research Council, was led by Tim Spector, professor of genetic epidemiology at St Thomas'. Spector has written a scientific paper on his findings and submitted it to academic journals. He has also outlined them in a newly published book, Your Genes Unzipped, which describes
how people's behaviour and lives are affected by genetic factors. "By studying twins, we can separate nature from nurture," Spector said. "It does seem that there is a strong link between a woman's genetic inheritance and the chances that she will commit infidelity." Parental inheritance might explain the infidelities
that have both plagued and blessed families such as the Redgrave acting dynasty. The Times (Britain), 6 June 2004. Manumit Exchange 7/6/04.)

USA: Women account for more than 40% of spousal homicides.

Women in intimate relationships are frequently portrayed by modern society as "the victim" when violence or a homicide occurs in intimate partnerships. These women continue to be seen by American culture as weak individuals who suffer at the hands of domineering, powerful, over- controlling men. The myth that spousal murder is committed almost entirely by husbands who kill their wives must be dispelled. In addition, there are discrepancies within the legal system, where a female is treated more leniently for murdering her husband, than
when a man murders his wife.

The criminal-justice system has failed to see equality in the crimes in the sexes, allowing for biased views that women are less malevolent than men and more prone to victimization. The stigma is intractable that women are more likely than men to feel remorse for what they've done. While this may be true for some women; for others, the truth is much further away than many suspect. Ever
since the first domestic violence shelter was created in 1984, the issues of spousal homicide, statistics and numbers of homicides in the home related to abuse have become a part of historical record. The U.S. Justice Department's 1994 Bureau of Justice Special Report indicated that in the category of murders of spouses, women represented 41 percent of killers.1

Women accounted for only 10 percent of defendants charged with all murders; however, women accounted for more than 40 percent of the defendants for all spousal homicides. Many reports of U.S. criminal sentencing demonstrate that wives who kill their husbands are acquitted in 12.9 percent of cases, while husbands who kill their wives are acquitted in only 1.4 percent of cases.
Additionally, a 1988 U.S. Justice Department study found men frequently receive an average sentence of 17 years for killing their spouses, vs. a six-year sentence for the woman who kills her husband. Probation for female spousal killers is granted to approximately 16 percent, while only 1.6 percent for males may be granted probation.4

Considerations were given to women who had been provoked, verbally assaulted and/or threatened prior to them committing homicide. The investigator must keep in mind it is often too easy to stereotype this type of homicide as a result of abuse, jealousy or other factors. The investigator must be aware that in domestic homicide, the perpetrator is often the female partner. Knowing this, the defense will be that the woman was being abused or neglected. The investigator must understand the history, the statistics and the cases relating to domestic homicide of the male spouse to discover how the intimate died, and the motive behind the death. In 1976, females murdered more than 1,357 male intimates. In 1993, men were the victims of about 162,870 violent crimes by an intimate partner. In 2000, an intimate partner killed approximately 1,247 women and
440 men.

Percentages compiled recently have shown an intimate killed about 4 percent of male murder victims, compared to the average of 33 percent of female murder victims. According to Uniform Crime Reports, of the 22,636 homicides committed in the U.S. in 1992, 1,288 (6 percent) were committed by a spouse or ex-spouse, and 762 (3 percent) were committed by a boyfriend or girlfriend.2 There is no doubt that some of the homicides in which the offender is not identified, involved spouses or boyfriends or girlfriends. Actual percentage of homicides committed by intimates is between 9 percent to 15 percent. Wives or girlfriends kill 3 percent and 5 percent of male homicide victims, respectively. Marital violence is highly underreported, as many people underestimate the amount and
seriousness of family violence per surveys done by Strauss in the 1990s. It has been noted that female-to-male violence has the potential of increasing male-to-female violence, in that men will frequently respond by escalating their use of violence.

(Forensic Nurse Magazine. Domestic Homicide of Male Spouses by Females: A Review for Death Investigators, By Lt. Cynthia T. Ferguson, CNM, MSN; Mamumit Exchange, 18/6/04.)

USA: Wal-Mart pledges to promote more women
FAYETTEVILLE, Arkansas. - Wal-Mart Stores, facing lawsuits for alleged gender bias and unfair treatment of workers, pledged yesterday to work harder to promote women to management and announced a new pay system for hourly employees. CEO Lee Scott told employees and shareholders at the company's annual meeting that executive bonuses, including his own, would be cut up to 7.5 percent this year and 15 percent next year if the company does not meet its
goals for promoting women. The aim is to promote women and minorities in proportion to the number that apply for management positions. "If 50 percent of the people applying for the job of store manager are women, we will work to make sure that 50 percent of the people receiving those jobs are women," Scott said. Scott did not give details. Critics were skeptical of Wal-Mart's planned
changes in work conditions and pay scales. (Wendy McElroy, 10/6/04).

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